US History: Converging Cultures (the beginning stuff)

Quote of AWESOMENESS: “Those who don’t know history are destined to repeat it.” ~ Edmund Burke

 

History!

Yay!! Right?

Let’s do this…..



Vocabulary

CASH CROPS: Agricultural crop which is grown for the sale to return a profit

COLONY: Area of land settled by immigrants who continue to be ruled by their parent country

Triangular Trade: Trade between the Americas, Europe, and Africa



 

Some Interesting Stuff 😉

Early Times: The Native Americans were living in America between 15,000 to 30,000 years ago and were nomadic until they learned how to plant and raise crops. Region by region, the Native American Tribes were different by their beliefs, language, food, economics, housing, and culture. 

Exploration Times: During the 1400s, Europe was interested in Asia for their spices, perfumes, fine silks, and jewels. Their hopes were to find a sailing route that would bypass Italy and the Middle East. It was because of Columbus, there was a huge wave of European exploration and settlement. Columbus, however, did NOT discover America.

European Impacts: In America, Europeans had both positive and negative consequences. The positive being that there was an exchange of new foods, farming methods, inventions, and technology. More on the side of spreading knowledge. However, the negative impacts were that the Native American population was exposed to diseases that they never been exposed to so they had no immunity to it whatsoever. This disease wiped out 90% of the Native American population!

Colonies Establishments & Slavery: By the 1600s, the French and English had established colonies in the eastern part of North America. They also started importing enslaved Africans in order to grow sugar, rice, cotton, and tobacco. These were also known as cash crops. Some claim that the reasons they used Africans as slaves were that they had some immunity to European diseases, they had experience in farming, they were less likely to escape because they didn’t know the land, and their skin color made it easier to catch them if they do try escaping. As cruel as it was to take advantage of people like that, this is how it was back then. During the 15th century, Africans were captured, enslaved, and shipped to the New World. Unfortunately, 20% of the Africans would not survive the journey. This was most likely due to the bad conditions and treatment they were given during the shipment.

13 COLONIES

MIDDLE COLONIES:

  • New York
  • New Jersey
  • Pennsylvania
  • Delaware

NEW ENGLAND:

  • Maine
  • New Hampshire
  • Massachusetts
  • Rhode Island
  • Connecticut

SOUTHERN COLONIES:

  • Maryland
  • Virginia
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Georgia

 

New England Colonies: They wanted to keep their family unit together and to practice their religion. The Puritans led a very strict life and were not very dependent on other people for much.

Middle Colonies: They were looking to practice their own religion, especially Pennsylvania, and to make money. Many of the people here didn’t bring their families with them from England. They were considered perfect workers for the hard work required and put in ironworks and shipyards. There was a mixture of religions, including Quackers, Catholics, Lutherans, Jews, and other. Lord Baltimore founded Maryland as a place of refuge for Catholics. It was in 1649 then Maryland passed the Toleration Act, which granted religious toleration to all Christians.

Southern Colonies: The main motivation was to make the money that was available in the new American market. They brought their families to live on plantations. 

Reasons Why People Moved to America: There was religious freedom. In their old country, most people weren’t allowed to practice their beliefs. In America, they were less discriminatory on religious beliefs. You could also make money. America offered an abundance of raw and natural materials. Colonists could make good money by growing cash crops such as tobacco, sugar, and cotton. Last but not least, you could own land. In Europe, only the wealthy were capable of owning land. In America, however, it didn’t matter what your background was or where you came from. Anyone could own land.

Triangular Trade: As early as 1619, enslaved Africans had arrived in the colonies. 20% of the population in 1775 consisted of slaves. The slave codes denied slaves rights. They were allowed to own property, access to education, couldn’t assemble, and had restricted movement. 

 

Hope you’re having an awesome day, afternoon, or night 🙂

 

Yours truly,

L.O.A.S.H

 


 © Elizabeth Anne Villoria 

PROject Python: Making Functions Pt. 2

Quote of AWESOMENESS: “Good software, like wine, takes time.” ~ Joel Spotsky

Helloooo!

Back again with another Python Project! Isn’t it just great?

yes. yes, it is.

Anyways! Let’s jump right into it.

The function we will be making today is one that is (extremely) awesome. We will be making out very own function that makes circles by itself! Once created, all a person has to do when using your function would be putting in the argument area the size, color, locations and other specifics that one would usually want to specify.

# remember that when we put a hashtag we are making a comment

# first thing to do is import the turtle library that comes with python
from turtle import *

# next, is the setup
setup()

# here, we are putting a title to the program we will be creating
title("Olympic Function")

turtle = Turtle()

# you can change the color if you'd like it's just for the background screen color
bgcolor("white")

# now, here is where the magic begins! 
# when making a function we must use the keyword def
# you can change the name of the function (it's the draw_ring one that you can change the name to whatever you would like)
# inside the () beside the function we just defined, we put in our arguments

def draw_ring(x,y,turtlecolor,size,turtle):

    # once the function gets called, the turtle.up() would put the pen we will be using for drawing up
    turtle.up()

    # this tells the turtle where to go, it's location
    turtle.goto(x,y)
  
    # then, the pen goes down and it ready to start drawing on the screen with turtle.down()
    turtle.down()

    # here's a cool thing we add to our function to add some color and life to our circle
    turtle.color(turtlecolor)

    # this would, as you may see in the args (a.k.a argument), chooses the size of the circle
    turtle.circle(size)

    # finally, once the circle is created successfully and the function is done, the turtle hides
    turtle.hideturtle()

###############################
######  TESTING SECTION  ###### 

# here's where we test our creation!
# try it out! call your function then put in the specifics of your circle

draw_ring(-250,0,"red",75,turtle)
draw_ring(-80,0,"pink",75,turtle)
draw_ring(90,0,"red",75,turtle)
draw_ring(-165,-75,"pink",75,turtle)
draw_ring(90,0,"red",75,turtle)
draw_ring(7,-75,"pink",75,turtle)

done()

 

Here’s the result of the function above!

Screen Shot 2018-04-23 at 20.18.44

AWESOMENESSSSSSSSSSSSSS! TRY IT OUT AND HAVE FUN!

 

Hope you’re having an amazing day 🙂

Yours truly, 

L.O.A.S.H

 


 © Elizabeth Anne Villoria 

PROject Python: Making a function

Quote of AWESOMENESS: “The function of leadership is to produce more leaders, not more followers” ~ Ralph Leader

Hiii!

Functions are so useful and cool at the same time and right now I’m going to teach just how to make one!

But, before we go there, what exactly is a function? It’s somewhat like a pre-made command that you get to customize yourself. For example, you wanted to make five circles, imagine you would have to make each circle repeating how big you wanted it to be, the color, locations, and others. But, if you had a function, you would make it so much simpler in just adding the code and copy-pasting the function.

Here’s the code for a function:

[rememberWHITESPACE is very important in Python]

# This hastag is a comment and won't affect the code
# We start making function by defining it with the word def
# The thing written inside the parenthesis is called the argument
# Remember to put the colon then the indentation will be proper, too

def list(alist):
    # Here, I'm setting the variable a to number 0
    a = 0

    # This is a for-loop and the i just stands for index 
    for i in alist:
        if i > 0:
            a += 1
        else:
            pass
    print(a)


# Here is the actual function in action!
# Test section
mylist = [2,-4,5,-16,-20]
mylist2 = [2,6,8,-4]
mylist3 = [-5,-6,-7,-8,10]


list(mylist)
list(mylist2)
list(mylist3)

This is just a simple example of what you can make of a function. Try it out! 

 

Don’t forget to be awesome!

Yours truly, 

L.O.A.S.H

 


 © Elizabeth Anne Villoria 

 

Project Python: Advanced Number Guessing Game (#fun)

Quote of AWESOMENESS: “Creativity is intelligence having fun” ~ Albert Einstein

Hey, guys!

Back again with another python program.

Awesome isn’t?

Now, this program is an “advanced” version of a guessing number game. So basically, the program gives the user three guesses and the numbers are ranging from 1-10. Through each time the user types in the answer and is wrong, the input would spit out either “too high” or “too low” indicating what the user’s next move should be.

Mix around with it and experiment like maybe adding a wider range of numbers to guess from or maybe adding riddles to guess the number. This code is somewhat the basis of what else can be built with it, so be creative and have fun! 

Here’s the code:



import random

range = random.randint(1, 10)

user_guess = 0

guess_counter = 0

print(“This is a guessing game and you will be given three tries to win! \nThe range will be between 1 and 10. \nGood luck!!”)

while guess_counter < 3:

user_guess = input(“What’s your guess?”)

guess_counter += 1

if user_guess.isnumeric():

user_guess = int(user_guess)

if user_guess < range:

print(“too low”)
elif user_guess > range:
print(“too high”)
else:
break

else:
print(“Not a number!”)

if user_guess == range:
print(“Awesome! You won!!”)
else:
print(“The number was actually”, range)
print(“Try again!”)



 

Have an awesome weekend!

Yours truly, 

L.O.A.S.H

 


 © Elizabeth Anne Villoria 

L.O.A.S.H’s Guide to (nearly) Everything: Arduino Color Lamp Mixer!

Quote of awesomeness: “Is not about creating an object. It is about creating a perspective.” ~ Albert Paley

Level of hardness: intermediate (You can do this!)

Heyyy!!!! Here’s another Arduino project for you!

For this project, you will need the following:

  • 1x Arduino UNO Board
  • 1x USB Cable Type A/B
  • 1x Breadboard
  • 1x RGB LED 
  • 3x 220-Ohm Resistor
  • 3x 10k-Ohm Resistor
  • 3x Photoresistors
  • 13x Jumper Wires

 

Step 1:

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The first step is two connect your breadboard to your Arduino and it should look something like the photo above. Then, add your RGB LED to your breadboard. 

Step 2:

0-02-01-ce8d12da04188f7a9054ea5aa04a72e5ac576232bc208167812c08ec3ba18cfe_full

 

Next, you need to grab another wire and connect the other positive lane of the breadboard to the negative lane on the other side of the breadboard.

 

Step 3:

0-02-01-9bde85f3c5437a50c6a476f15138e6c5858ce46a700364835db6ee8e53447d2f_full

In this step, we will be placing the three 220-Ohm Resistors to three of the legs of the RGB LED. You will only be placing the resistors on the R, G and B of the RGB LED, this will leave you with one leg unconnected.

 

Step 4:

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For this step, you will be needing four wires. Remember I told you that you were left with one leg of the RGB LED which isn’t connected? Well, it’s time to connect it now! Place one end of the wire to the remaining leg of the RGB LED then place the other end to the negative lane of the board. In the photo, the wire which I used for this connection is white.

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With the other three wires, connect it to each of the 220-ohm resistors. Then, connect the other end of the wires to the Arduino 9, 19, and 11.

 

Step 5:

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Let’s place the photo-resistors on the breadboard so that they cross the center divide from one side to the other. 

 

Step 6:

0-02-01-c45f2f455156cfbfb4d1aee3c77926f4c5d55503f0796170018956fc0281a57a_full.jpg

Now, connect the 10k-Ohm resistors to one side of the photo-resistors and the other side to the negative lane of the breadboard.

 

Step 7:

0-02-01-3e1c74c9aa8f84a2158daa0ca5b528a6e2785236e0f532f18c1820533a1aa4a9_full.jpg

Taking three other wires, connect it between the photo-resistor and the 10k-Ohm resistor then connect the other end to the Analog In pins 0, 1, and 2 on the Arduino.

 

Step 8:

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Going on the other side of the photo-resistor, connect each leg to the positive lane of the Arduino with three wires.

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Your result should look something like this!

 

Step 9:

This is the final step! Connect your Arduino to your computer, fire up your Arduino and copy paste in the following code:

const int greenLEDPin = 9;
const int redLEDPin = 11;
const int blueLEDPin = 10;

const int redSensorPin = A0;
const int greenSensorPin = A1;
const int blueSensorPin = A2;

int redValue = 0;
int greenValue = 0;
int blueValue = 0;

int redSensorValue = 0;
int greenSensorValue = 0;
int blueSensorValue = 0;

void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);

pinMode(greenLEDPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(redLEDPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(blueLEDPin, OUTPUT);

}

void loop() {
redSensorValue = analogRead(redSensorPin);
delay(5);
greenSensorValue = analogRead(greenSensorPin);
delay(5);
blueSensorValue = analogRead(blueSensorPin);

Serial.print(“Raw Sensor Value \t Red: “);
Serial.print(redSensorValue);
Serial.print(“\t Green: “);
Serial.print(greenSensorValue);
Serial.print(“\t Blue: “);
Serial.print(blueSensorValue);

redValue = redSensorValue/4;
greenValue = greenSensorValue/4;
blueValue = blueSensorValue/4;

Serial.print(“Mapped Sensor Values \t Red: “);
Serial.print(redValue);
Serial.print(“\t Green: “);
Serial.print(greenValue);
Serial.print(“\t Blue: “);
Serial.println(blueValue);

analogWrite(redLEDPin, redValue);
analogWrite(greenLEDPin, greenValue);
analogWrite(blueLEDPin, blueValue);
}

 

Then watch as your RGD LED comes to life! It should change, mix and fade in different colours as the light around it changes, too! Awesome, right?? Yeah, it totally is.

Yours truly,

L.O.A.S.H

 


 © Elizabeth Anne Villoria 

 

Youtube University

Quote of awesomeness: “I am still learning” ~ Michelangelo

Youtube, youtube, youtube, how it’s grown these past few years. Let’s go back to the beginning, shall we?

There’s no youtube university….. YET! But, with youtube, you can learn so much from coding, cooking, hacking, how-to’s, about the universe and so much more!! Any gender, color, and ethnicity have the free access to learn and even add about what they know into youtube, as long as there’s wi-fi. It’s amazing, isn’t it?

It was 2005, February 15 when the website, called Youtube, was being built up. Who were the faces behind this, exactly? Three names Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim. This idea started when Chad and Hurley tried sending a video with sound to their friends through e-mail. But, then the file was too large that it wouldn’t send which then sparked an idea to create a website where videos could be shared!

Ooooh, I wonder *wink* where could do *wink* that now (hint: Starts with You and ends with Tube). 

The first ever video on Youtube was on April 23, 2005, which was posted by Jawed Karim, was their testing video to see if the website worked. 

Here is the first youtube video! It’s called “Me at the Zoo” and is only about 19 seconds long. There are about 46,035,660 views and growing as people still come and visit the first ever youtube video. If you scroll down a bit on this youtube video, it’s very likely to see very very very recent comments. This was 12 years ago! Imagine how this literally started a new era.

100 million videos were on the site when Youtube was just one year old! And, on October 9, 2006, Google bought youtube for $1.65 billion. 



Awesome Learning Channels to Subscribe to!

  • – CRASH COURSE –

Screen Shot 2018-02-19 at 15.48.06In Crash Course, there are plenty of videos on World History, Biology, Ecology, Literature, Philosophy, Mythology, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science and way more! It’s an awesome channel to learn about so many different subjects in such a fun and entertaining way. Check it out!

  • – TED-Ed –

Screen Shot 2018-02-19 at 15.57.13

TED-ed is also composed of educational videos on different subjects and they even have riddles to solve. I personally love watching videos from TED-ed because they are very informative and fun at the same time! And, the videos posted here are animated, too!

  • ASAP SCIENCE –

Screen Shot 2018-02-19 at 16.03.51.png

Here at Asap Science, you can find plenty of fun and interesting science videos which are all mostly made from drawings! Here is one of their videos:

 

  • Khan Academy

Screen Shot 2018-02-24 at 14.50.47

The videos from Khan Academy have truly helped me and they have various videos on plenty different subjects. I suggest you check this out! 



 

Awesome, right? There are so many things that can be learned with everyone sharing and teaching others through youtube. It’s possible that you could find any tutorial on how to do anything out there, from how to take make puppy food to even building a solar car!  You can even post your one videos!

Yours truly,

L.O.A.S.H

 


 © Elizabeth Anne Villoria 

Swagbucks!: A tested way to earn some moolah (money) back

Quote of awesomeness: “Never spend your money before you have it” ~ Thomas Jefferson

Have you ever heard of Swagbucks? This website lets you earn your money back! It’s actually free to join. All you need to do is give your email address and create a password. Yup, that simple. The first thing that you will need to do is earn points. When you have a certain amount of points earned, then you can convert this into gift cards or even get paid by PayPal!

Q: How to earn points, exactly??

A:  There are many different ways to earn points, here are some of them:

  • Taking surveys
  • Watching entertainment videos
  • Searching the web using their website or app
  • Getting deals
  • Online Shopping (you just have to connect the Swagbucks to the store you would be buying from):
    • Amazon
    • Airbnb
    • Forever 21
    • Macy’s
    • Old Navy
    • Groupon
    • Gap
    • And, way more!

Q: What can I get with my points?

A:  Here are a few examples on what you can redeem with your points earned:

With as low as, 300 points you can get a $3 gift card for Amazon, E-bay, or Target! 

300 POINTS = 3$ GIFT CARDS

The higher points you get, the higher the gift card would get! And, sometime they would get sales so that the points you need to earn would be less to redeem!

Like, right now, a $25 Nike gift card would just need 2000 POINTS.

Q: What are the different types of Gift Cards given as choices?

A:  Here are a few of them!:

  • AMAZON
  • PAYPAL
  • NIKE
  • ITUNE
  • CVS
  • TARGET
  • E-BAY
  • SEPHORA
  • STARBUCKS
  • AND, THERE ARE STILL MORE TO CHOOSE FROM

If you would like to try it out, all you have to search is swagbucks.com

Thanks for reading and don’t forget to be awesome.

Yours truly,

L.O.A.S.H

 

Python Basics!!!

Quote of awesomeness: “It’s harder to read code than to write it.” ~ Joel Spolsky

Let’s learn some basics!

Here are some simple datatypes:

  • Integers (whole number)
    • 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6….

 

  • Floats (decimals)
    • 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5…..

 

  • String (anything in “quotation marks”)
    • “hello”, “my”, “awesome”, “readers!”

 

  • Boolean (I know, sounds kinda funny right)
    • these datatypes are values at two constant objects
    • a boolean is either True or False (yes, with a capital T and a capital F)

 

Want to do something cool? Yeah, me too. Okay, once you open up your terminal, type in and press enter. The next that should have happened is that your terminal should have showed this:

>>>

Did you know??!!: #when a hashtag is put in python, this is known as a comment and it doesn’t affect the code

Did you know that we can keep datatypes stored into variables? It works like this. When you write a variable a word or letter, for example, then followed by this is a equal sign you can assign a variable. Let’s try it out on your terminal! Try doing something similar to the following:

>>> x = “helllloooooo thereeee!!!”

When you pressed enter, you must have not seen anything happen but just another >>>. But, it’s okay, here’s the thing. The string I just put with the variable is now stored. So when I put my variable alone this is what happens:

>>> x

Press enter and theeeeen!!

>>> helllloooooo thereeee!!!

TADA! WASN’T THAT SUPER COOL?!?! And, that’s just the very basics of what can be reached with python. 

You can even do some math with python. The arithmetics might be slightly different but I’m sure you will get the hang of it soon!:

  • Multiply (it’s the asterisks sign)
  • Division (it’s the slash)
  • Addition (it’s the plus sign)
    • +
  • Subtraction (it’s the minus sign)
  • Exponentiation (it’s two asterisks)
    • **
  • Modulus (it’s the percentage sign) 
    • %
    • this divides a number with another number and inputs the remainder

Here’s an example of each of these signs and their outputs. You can also test this out on the python which we opened up earlier on the terminal.


multiplication, *

>>> 2 * 9

When we put the equation above, our output would be

>>> 18


 

division, /

>>> 256 / 2

The output would be:

>>> 128


 

addition, +

>>> 1000 + 1000

The output would be

>>> 2000


 

subtraction, –

>>> 500 – 200

The output would be:

>>> 300


exponentiation, **

>>> 4 ** 2

The output would be:

>>> 16


 

modulus, %

>>> 2 % 5

Would get the output of:

>>> 1


 

Go on. Try experimenting at your terminal!

!important! : Unlike other programming types, python is very picky with whitespace. Meaning the indentations! Sometimes an error on expected or unexpected indentations may rise here and there but it’s nothing a few backspaces or the tab button can’t handle.

We’ve gotten down with some of the very basics that can be done with programming. With what you’ve learned here so far try exploring and trying this out! 

Yours truly,

L.O.A.S.H

L.O.A.S.H’s Guide to (nearly) Everything: How to Make an Arduino Robot Arm

Level of hardness: Intermediate

I’m so excited!

This project is just extremely awesome and awe-spiring that I can’t wait for you guys to try it out!

We. Are. Going. To. Make. An. Arduino. Robot. Arm!!!!!! I know, I know super cool. Now, without further ado, let’s jump right into this project.

The following are what you will need to gather:

  • 1x Arduino UNO Board
  • 1x Breadboard
  • 1x USB Cable Type A/B
  • 2x Button
  • 2x 10k-Ohm Resistor
  • 3x Potentiometer
  • 5x LED (A.K.A light-emitting diode, A.K.A miniature looking light bulb-ish)
  • 5x 220 Ohm Resistor
  • 20x Jumper Wires

Step 1:

First, let’s start by putting the potentiometers, the buttons, and the LED’s on our breadboard.

Step 1.jpg

We will be placing 3 potentiometers, 2 buttons, and 5 LED’s. For your reference, the photo above can help. Yes, I did say 5 LED’s but I forgot to place the fifth LED in this photo, but you should put 5.

Here are some important basics to understand about an LED:

Cathode (-, shorter side)

Anode (+, longer side)

0-02-01-011b6222b4e99533565c045f5f76d88f8eee9d81ad4743fa7754a214abc03bab_full.jpg

Step 2:

RESISTORS. Resistors. resistors.

Step 2.jpg
Here, in this photo, I’ve put 5 LED’s

Place five of your 220 Ohm Resistors on each of the Anodes (+) sides of each of your LED’s and the other end of the resistor to the negative side lane on your breadboard which we will later connect to the GND on your Arduino board. I’ve placed another photo above showing where I’ve placed my 220 Ohm Resistors.

ARDUINO1.jpg
Here, I circled each of the legs (Anode side) which I connected my 220 Ohm Resistors to

Now, take both of your 10k-Ohm Resistors. You will have to place one side of your resistor to only one of the button’s leg. Do this for both buttons. Here is another picture but of the buttons and resistor placing.

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We have finished placing all the resistors we will be needing in this project. You guys are doing an awesome job, btw!

Step 3:

This step will be really quick.

All we need to is get two jumper wires, first. Then, connect the Negative lane on your breadboard to your GND on your Arduino, and, the positive lane of on your breadboard to the 5V on your Arduino (you can find this right beside the GND, usually).

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Here is the overview of everything so far

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Done with this step. Great job!

Step 4:

For this step, you will be needing 5 of your jumper wires.

We will be connecting each of the LED’s on the breadboard onto the Arduino UNO board with your jumper wires.

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Here is the first LED I connected. We will be connected the other leg (cathode, shorter side) of the LEDs to these numbers on the Arduino in order:

  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 7
  • 8

I will also be numbering the LEDs on the next photo so that it will be easier to know which we will be connecting to which.

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This shows where I connected my jumper wires to the LEDs

We will connect:

  • LED 1 to 2 on the Arduino board
  • LED 2 to 3 on the Arduino board
  • LED 3 to 4 on the Arduino board
  • LED 4 to 7 on the Arduino board
  • LED 5 to 8 on the Arduino board

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Step 5:

I know that wiring could be a tedious job but it’s okay because I know you can do it.

Wiring is very important because it connects. It works as that bridge that can help cars go back and forth and connect with other cities. If you have a bulb and a power source you can’t just put it beside each other or clink it together to light the bulb up (even that would be super cool if that’s how easy it was), you need to connect it through wires. So, let’s continue? Yes.

In this step, we will be wiring the buttons and the potentiometers.

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Here in this photo I got two jumper wires and connected one end to the remaining unconnected leg of the buttons and connected the other side of the jumper wire to the positive (+) lane on the breadboard

That was easy, wasn’t it?

We are nearly done!

Let’s start wiring the potentiometers now.

For the potentiometer, it’s going to be slightly harder.

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In this photo, I’ve connected 3 jumper wires to the right side of the potentiometer then connected the other end of the wire to the Negative lane of the breadboard (A.K.A GND).

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And, then, I got 3 more wires and connected it to the left side of my potentiometer then connected the other end to the Positive Lane on the breadboard.

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I’ve added the numbers on top of each potentiometer so that it’s easier to understand how to connect it to the Arduino.

As you may see on the picture to your left, I’ve added 3 white jumper wires to each of the middles of the potentiometers because we will connect this to the Arduino Board. Connect potentiometer 1 to the A0 on the Arduino UNO Board | Connect potentiometer 2 to the A1 on the Arduino UNO Board | Connect Potentiometer 3 to the A3 on the Arduino UNO Board.

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Step 6:

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In this step, grab two more jumper wires and connect both ends of the lanes on each side of the breadboard to each other. I used the black and red wire here.

You will need to connect the Negative lanes on each side to each other and the Positive lane on each side to each other.

Tada! Next step.

Step 7:

Seeeeervoooo Moooootooooors.

We are nearing the last of our steps. KEEP GOING!

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We will add the servo motors to our breadboard and I put mine side by side to each other.

I connected three jumper wires each for three of my servos, meaning 9 jumper wires in total.

About servo motors in Arduino:

  • They usually have 3 plug pins (this is where I connected my jumper wires to)

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Take a look at your servo motor. You will probably notice there are three colored wires. Each color represents 3 different things. The colors could actually be different sometimes but, as you see here, my colors are brown, red, and yellow.

  • The brown is the Ground/Negative (-)
  • The red is Positive (+) [This wire is usually located at the center of all the three wires]
  • The yellow is the Signal

Your wires on your servo motors might be different and you might be thinking “WHAT!?!?” but it’s okay (that’s what I thought too) here is how you can compare it to mine to find the similarities:

  • The Ground/Negative is usually | Black or Brown (in my case, it’s brown)
  • The Positive is always Red
  • The Signal can be either | Orange, Yellow, or White (in my case, it’s Yellow)

Better?

Awesome, let’s proceed.

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These are what you need to connect with your Servos:

  • Connect each of the GND/Negative (Black or brown wire) on each of your servo motors to the positive lane on your breadboard (I used a white jumper wire, check the photo above for reference)
  • Connect each of the Positive (Red wire) on each of your servo motors to the negative lane on your breadboard (I used an orange jumper wire)
  • Lastly, connect each of the signals (Orange, Yellow, or white wire) of your servo motors to: 5, 6, and, 9 on your Arduino
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I know it’s a bit of a mess. But, there are three wires that you can find colored: 1x black & 2x green. These are the wires that connect to the Arduino

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Step 8:

This is our last time! Congratulations!!!

Connect your Arduino to your computer, fire up the Arduino app on your computer, copy paste the code below and press Upload.

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Now, the challenge whether you choose to accept it or not is to build your own robot arm out of cardboard or you can check this —-> here which was made by Ryan Chan. Shoutout to him, btw. I hope you enjoyed this! I certainly had an awesome time and I hope you did, too!

You can teach others and share your awesome knowledge on building an arduino robot arm, I give some bragging rights.

Thanks so much for reading!

Yours truly,

L.O.A.S.H

ALEXANDER HAMILTON

 

Quote of awesomeness: “A promise must never be broken.” ~ Alexander Hamilton

One of the greatest man in history who has helped in shaping our bank system today, establishing the system of Federalism and is also known as one of the founding fathers of the nation, Alexander Hamilton. There is still so much more that he has done, so much more. It has been such an honor getting able to read about him because without him, and his awesome mind the world would be different today. Yes, he also has a play, called Hamilton, about his life.

Our First National bank was because of…

FUUUN FACT!: Did you know that Hamilton founded the first National Bank in the US which both Thomas Jefferson (as a Republican) and James Madison (who became the 4th president of the United States) was going against him and trying to prevent him from making it happen (but it did happen, Hamilton succeeded and with a good purpose)

Alexander Hamilton was well aware of the system that the British were using for their banks and he wanted the US to have it’s own like them. His reason to have a bank which he had the plan of spreading all throughout the other states were:

  • The US would have its own uniform currency
  • The bank could lend to people and governments (especially to start for business purposes)
  • The US basically needed one
  • The US was using Spanish dollars and they should have their own currency because it’s better
  • It could hold deposits

Childhood of Alexander Hamilton

Alexander may have been living in a house in NYC and became famous and met so many important people before but it wasn’t always like this. He wasn’t born into this kind of life. He brought himself up without any of his family members to help but just himself to depend on. His father left them (him, his brother, and his mother) at a very young age, and, unfortunately, his mother died from a sickness which left Alexander and his brother, James, with nothing. You may be wondering why would they not inherit anything from their mother. The reason is that their mother, Rachel Faucette Buck, was forbidden to marry anyone else as she was still married. Rachel had a son, Peter, who was legally left with him all of his mother’s things.

This still didn’t bring down and he strived harder to succeed in his life goals. He started out small and worked his way up. His talents didn’t go unnoticed and this brought him to greater things.

One of his special moments was when he gave a speech once when he was just in college which inspired so many people and which also left a lot of them astonished (in a good way) as they realized he was just a “Collegian!”

Did you know that there were plenty of times when which Alexander would fight in the war against the British? He was one of the men who greatly helped in winning the war against the British. And, Alexander wrote and thought of important choices for George Washington.

The Affair

Although he has done many great things, Alexander did have flaws like everyone else. Unfortunately, with his past of his father leaving and abandoning his mother (his reason being: not wanting hamilton’s mother to be charged with bigamy) he had a “soft spot” for women and went into this affair while married to Elizabeth Schuyler-Hamilton with Maria Reynolds after she begged him for him one night and told him her story about how her husband was abusing her. Hamilton couldn’t say no or bring down a woman in need. He would visit Maria and have stached up money in his pocket. He tried to stop this (his affair) but then Maria sent a letter to him explaining how she doesn’t find a reason to live unless he would be with her. This again affected him and he continued seeing her. Soon enough, they got caught by Maria’s husband, James Reynolds.

Hamilton was being blackmailed by James into paying large sums as he threatened to tell the media about his affair. He needed to protect his honor, it was very important to him. But there was a cost, one day, his firstborn son, Philip fought at a duel against George I. Eacker with the intent of protecting his father’s honor. Philip didn’t win but something worse happened, his wound was too bad to heal that no doctor was able to do anything and he died on November 23, 1801. This hurt Alexander and his wife greatly and this is when Alexander made the decision to quit his job.

………………………………


Alexander Hamilton was George Washington’s right hand or aide-de-camp. And, they worked very closely. Hamilton also looked up at Washington as a fatherly figure as his own father he never met. He became the first treasurer secretary which Washington gave to him. He had eight children. He died at the age of 49 a few days after a duel against Aaron Burr in the same place where his son, Philip, got a mortal wound.

According to toptenz, it was in August 1772, when Hamilton was 17 (but telling people he was 15 (yes he lied about his age – L.O.A.S.H)) the West Indies was hit by a horrible hurricane. Hamilton, who was working as a clerk, wrote about the hurricane in a letter that he planned on sending to his father. However, first he showed it to a Presbyterian minister named Hugh Knox, who was also mentoring him. In an interesting side note, Knox was ordained as a minister by Aaron Burr Sr., the father of Vice President Aaron Burr. As you probably know if you ever studied American history, Aaron Burr is going to be a big part of this list.

But, back to the letter – Knox read it and was impressed with Hamilton’s writing. He encouraged Hamilton to publish it in the newspaper where Knox filled in as an editor. It was printed in October along with a foreword by Knox. After the letter was published, several businessmen in St. Croix wanted to know the identity of the writer and when Hamilton came forward, they took up a collection to send him to America to be educated. Several months later, Hamilton was sent to New York where he enrolled in King’s College (which is now Columbia).


This is Alexander’s Letter which brought him to America:


It began about dusk, at North, and raged very violently till ten o’clock. Then ensued a sudden and unexpected interval, which lasted about an hour. Meanwhile the wind was shifting round to the South West point, from whence it returned with redoubled fury and continued so ’till near three o’clock in the morning. Good God! what horror and destruction. Its impossible for me to describe or you to form any idea of it. It seemed as if a total dissolution of nature was taking place. The roaring of the sea and wind, fiery meteors flying about it in the air, the prodigious glare of almost perpetual lightning, the crash of the falling houses, and the ear-piercing shrieks of the distressed, were sufficient to strike astonishment into Angels. A great part of the buildings throughout the Island are levelled to the ground, almost all the rest very much shattered; several persons killed and numbers utterly ruined; whole families running about the streets, unknowing where to find a place of shelter; the sick exposed to the keeness of water and air without a bed to lie upon, or a dry covering to their bodies; and our harbours entirely bare. In a word, misery, in all its most hideous shapes, spread over the whole face of the country. A strong smell of gunpowder added somewhat to the terrors of the night; and it was observed that the rain was surprizingly salt. Indeed the water is so brackish and full of sulphur that there is hardly any drinking it.

My reflections and feelings on this frightful and melancholy occasion, are set forth in the following self-discourse.

Where now, oh! vile worm, is all thy boasted fortitude and resolution? What is become of thine arrogance and self sufficiency? Why dost thou tremble and stand aghast? How humble, how helpless, how contemptible you now appear. And for why? The jarring of elements—the discord of clouds? Oh! impotent presumptuous fool! how durst thou offend that Omnipotence, whose nod alone were sufficient to quell the destruction that hovers over thee, or crush thee into atoms? See thy wretched helpless state, and learn to know thyself. Learn to know thy best support. Despise thyself, and adore thy God. How sweet, how unutterably sweet were now, the voice of an approving conscience; Then couldst thou say, hence ye idle alarms, why do I shrink? What have I to fear? A pleasing calm suspense! A short repose from calamity to end in eternal bliss? Let the Earth rend. Let the planets forsake their course. Let the Sun be extinguished and the Heavens burst asunder. Yet what have I to dread? My staff can never be broken—in Omnip[o]tence I trusted.

He who gave the winds to blow, and the lightnings to rage—even him have I always loved and served. His precepts have I observed. His commandments have I obeyed—and his perfections have I adored. He will snatch me from ruin. He will exalt me to the fellowship of Angels and Seraphs, and to the fullness of never ending joys.

But alas! how different, how deplorable, how gloomy the prospect! Death comes rushing on in triumph veiled in a mantle of tenfold darkness. His unrelenting scythe, pointed, and ready for the stroke. On his right hand sits destruction, hurling the winds and belching forth flames: Calamity on his left threatening famine disease and distress of all kinds. And Oh! thou wretch, look still a little further; see the gulph of eternal misery open. There mayest thou shortly plunge—the just reward of thy vileness. Alas! whither canst thou fly? Where hide thyself? Thou canst not call upon thy God; thy life has been a continual warfare with him.

Hark—ruin and confusion on every side. ’Tis thy turn next; but one short moment, even now, Oh Lord help. Jesus be merciful!

Thus did I reflect, and thus at every gust of the wind, did I conclude, ’till it pleased the Almighty to allay it. Nor did my emotions proceed either from the suggestions of too much natural fear, or a conscience over-burthened with crimes of an uncommon cast. I thank God, this was not the case. The scenes of horror exhibited around us, naturally awakened such ideas in every thinking breast, and aggravated the deformity of every failing of our lives. It were a lamentable insensibility indeed, not to have had such feelings, and I think inconsistent with human nature.

Our distressed, helpless condition taught us humility and contempt of ourselves. The horrors of the night, the prospect of an immediate, cruel death—or, as one may say, of being crushed by the Almighty in his anger—filled us with terror. And every thing that had tended to weaken our interest with him, upbraided us in the strongest colours, with our baseness and folly. That which, in a calm unruffled temper, we call a natural cause, seemed then like the correction of the Deity. Our imagination represented him as an incensed master, executing vengeance on the crimes of his servants. The father and benefactor were forgot, and in that view, a consciousness of our guilt filled us with despair.

But see, the Lord relents. He hears our prayer. The Lightning ceases. The winds are appeased. The warring elements are reconciled and all things promise peace. The darkness is dispell’d and drooping nature revives at the approaching dawn. Look back Oh! my soul, look back and tremble. Rejoice at thy deliverance, and humble thyself in the presence of thy deliverer.

Yet hold, Oh vain mortal! Check thy ill timed joy. Art thou so selfish to exult because thy lot is happy in a season of universal woe? Hast thou no feelings for the miseries of thy fellow-creatures? And art thou incapable of the soft pangs of sympathetic sorrow? Look around thee and shudder at the view. See desolation and ruin where’er thou turnest thine eye! See thy fellow-creatures pale and lifeless; their bodies mangled, their souls snatched into eternity, unexpecting. Alas! perhaps unprepared! Hark the bitter groans of distress. See sickness and infirmities exposed to the inclemencies of wind and water! See tender infancy pinched with hunger and hanging on the mothers knee for food! See the unhappy mothers anxiety. Her poverty denies relief, her breast heaves with pangs of maternal pity, her heart is bursting, the tears gush down her cheeks. Oh sights of woe! Oh distress unspeakable! My heart bleeds, but I have no power to solace! O ye, who revel in affluence, see the afflictions of humanity and bestow your superfluity to ease them. Say not, we have suffered also, and thence withold your compassion. What are you[r] sufferings compared to those? Ye have still more than enough left. Act wisely. Succour the miserable and lay up a treasure in Heaven.

I am afraid, Sir, you will think this description more the effort of imagination than a true picture of realities. But I can affirm with the greatest truth, that there is not a single circumstance touched upon, which I have not absolutely been an eye witness to.

Our General [Ulrich Wilhelm Roepstorff, Governor General of St. Croix] has issued several very salutary and humane regulations, and both in his publick and private measures, has shewn himself the Man.


AMAZING, RIGHT??!

If you are going to read about Alexander Hamilton, I highly recommend the book Alexander Hamilton Revolutionary written by Martha Brockenbrough. It was copywritten on 2017 and its pages will leave you excited to know about Hamilton

Yours Truly,

L.O.A.S.H